How to know if your tooth needs root canal.
- Signs and symptoms you may notice (pain, infection, swelling). / Signs dentists look for. / Tooth testing. / What to do if you notice symptoms.
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Does your tooth need root canal?
Figuring out if a tooth requires endodontic therapy may or may not be a very easy task.
As we outline on this page, there are a number of signs and symptoms that people needing treatment frequently do experience. And there are some other less obvious ones that dentists know further suggest that a tooth requires attention.
But the final determination about a specific tooth's need for root canal must be based on your dentist collecting all available information, and then viewing those findings in light of each other. Only with that complete picture can an accurate diagnosis be made.
Here are the types of issues and events that need to be evaluated.
- Symptoms you have noticed. - It's frequently the appearance of pain or signs of infection and/or swelling that first signal to a person that their tooth has a problem.
Your dentist will quiz you about the symptoms you have experienced: Type, location, onset, duration, what if anything provides relief.
- Signs obvious to your dentist. - Some teeth seem to give little indication that there's a problem within their nerve space. But to the trained eye, there can be subtle hints that are an obvious sign that a problem likely exists.
Common tip-offs: Tooth color, evidence of infection drainage, soft tissue changes and asymmetry.
- Additional testing. - Once a dentist has identified one or more suspect teeth, they'll perform additional testing that can help to zero in on the one that lies at fault.
Types of testing: Thermal (hot and cold), percussion, electric pulp testing and of course x-ray evaluation.
1) Root canal signs and symptoms you (the patient) may notice.
Having tooth pain isn't always an indication that root canal treatment is needed. Some teeth that require it never hurt at all. Others that do may settle down after an entirely different procedure has been performed.
But when there is an association between the two, one or more of the following scenarios typically plays out. (Admittedly, not every item mentioned below is especially unique to endodontic pain.)
Type of pain.
- The discomfort can range from sharp and intense to a dull ache. It's level may range from slight to extreme.
- The pain may include a throbbing component (feels like it has its own heartbeat).
- Its character may change (lessen or intensify) as you change your posture (stand up, bend over, lie down, etc...).
- The discomfort may be severe enough that it wakes you when sleeping.
Onset and duration.
- Depending on how long the underlying condition has existed, some level of discomfort may have presented itself intermittently before (previous days, weeks, months). In other cases this will be the person's first painful experience.
- The pain may be spontaneous (hurts on its own) or only triggered in response to a stimulus.
- In cases where the pain is spontaneous, it may be intermittent or continuous.
- If a triggering event is involved, it may be: Chewing or biting pressure, the pressure of pressing or tapping on the tooth, thermal insult (like exposure to hot or cold foods and beverages), sweets.
Once the triggering stimulus has been removed, rather than disappearing immediately the discomfort frequently lingers. It may then finally fade away, or continue for an extended period of time.
In some cases heat will bother the culprit tooth and cold liquids or ice will settle it down. (Ice application is sometimes used by patients to provide temporary relief.)
- It may be quite easy for the patient to identify which tooth hurts.
- The person may be able to tell which general area is painful but not which tooth.
- The pain may be referred, meaning that the tooth or area that hurts the most is not the one that is the actual source of the problem.
This slideshow explains "gumboils."
b) Gum tenderness, swelling, infection.
Obvious signs of infection, like swelling, don't occur in every case where root canal treatment is needed. But when they do display, they will typically show some of the following characteristics.
Degree of enlargement.
- The swelling can range from being just very slight (a reddish, otherwise normal-looking area that has some tenderness) to quite pronounced (a lump that you can actually feel, or region that has noticeable fullness).
- In extreme cases, the swelling may extend into your face and/or neck.
- When the swelling is relatively minor and localized, the area of enlargement usually lies at a level that approximates the tip of the problem tooth's root.
- Instead of pronounced swelling, a pimple-like drain for pus may form on your gums (a "gum boil").
(See our slide show for details and pictures about both of these points.)
While nothing here is uniquely informative:
- The swelling may come and go as days, weeks or even months pass, possibly never disappearing completely.
- It may have presented itself for the first time, with a slow or rapid onset.
- Swelling may be but isn't always accompanied by the presence of pain.
- If the pus causing the swelling finds a way to vent off (drain), you may notice a bad taste in your mouth. Draining pus can also be the source of foul breath odor.
- It's possible that due to infection the tooth feels slightly elevated. (Seems as though it's been pushed out of its socket some and is taller than its neighboring teeth.)
c) Frequency of symptoms.
It bears repeating that when any of the signs and symptoms for pain or swelling involve an extended time frame they may be:
- Transient - Meaning they come and go on a day-to-day or month-to-month basis, or any frequency rate in between.
- Persistent and continual. - While possibly not always especially noticeable or intense, the symptoms never totally disappear.
d) What you experience can be incredibly varied.
By now it's surely apparent to you why dentists go to school for so long. It can be astoundingly difficult to accurately diagnose a patient's condition.
- With low-grade chronic cases, the patient may experience almost no symptoms at all (yet always be at risk for an acute flare up).
- In cases of acute apical abscess, a rapid onset, spontaneous pain, pronounced tissue swelling, and extreme sensitivity to pressure (tapping or biting on the tooth) are all likely to be experienced.
- With other endodontic cases, it can be almost anything in between.
If you do notice symptoms, don't assume that you can diagnose your situation on your own. For your well being, they need to be checked out by your dentist.
2) Signs of needing root canal that may only be obvious to your dentist.
The death of a tooth's nerve isn't always a big event.
- It's possible (and even common) for this process to occur without producing any noticeable symptoms at all.
- In some cases the original events surrounding the nerve's death may have been so mild, or taken place so long ago, that they're not remembered.
With either situation, it may take your dentist's keen eye during their examination to discover that unbeknownst to you endodontic therapy is needed for your tooth.
To a dentist, this is proof positive that treatment is needed.
a) Identifying teeth requiring root canal with x-rays.
In cases where little or no pain or swelling has occurred, a problem tooth may go unnoticed. And in fact, a tooth's need for root canal treatment may remain undiscovered, even for some years.
That's why routine dental x-rays can be so important.
Dentists often discover these asymptomatic teeth during routine x-ray evaluation. The film will typically show a dark spot centered at the tip of the tooth's root (see picture).
Dentists refer to this type of dark spot as a "radiolucency." And one found at this location on an x-ray is typically a sign that changes have occurred with the bone in this area in response to an infection housed inside, and leaking out of, the tooth's root.
b) Recurring or persistent gum boils.
An active infection inside a tooth may result in the formation of a pimple-like lesion on a person's gum tissue. It will typically form at a level that approximates where the tip of the problem tooth's root lies.
Patients often refer to these lesions as "gum boils." Dentists use the term "fistulous tracts."
What causes them to form?
A fistulous tract is actually a drain for pus. Instead of it building up inside the soft tissues surrounding the tooth and causing tissue enlargement (swelling), the tract provides a way for it to vent off.
- The size of the boil may rise and fall over time (on a daily, weekly or even monthly basis) as the infection's activity waxes and wanes.
- Since they function as a drain for pus, a person may detect a bad taste coming from theirs.
- The lesion is typically tender to touch.
- If the tract becomes blocked, tissue swelling will form. If it opens back up, drainage can resume, thus bringing down the swelling.
(If you didn't use the link above, this slideshow provides illustrations and further details about these types of lesions.)
c) Individually darkened teeth.
The dark color of this tooth suggests that it needs treatment.
Tooth discoloration can indicate that changes, possibly pathological, have taken place within its nerve space.
This type of color change is frequently the sole reason why a dentist will suspect that a tooth has a problem and requires root canal therapy.
This section's slideshow explains why the staining occurs. When it does the tooth typically takes on a dark yellow, gray or even black tint.
- This phenomenon is fairly common with teeth that have experienced some type of trauma (like being banged up in an accident).
- It may take place even some years (even 10 years plus) after the original event occurred.
- The darkening process may not be associated with any noticeable symptoms (pain or swelling).
If nerve exposure occurs, endodontic therapy is usually needed.
d) Exposure of the tooth's nerve.
Performing the dental work that a tooth requires sometimes results in the exposure of its nerve. The term "exposure" means that the dentist's work has made contact with the tooth's pulp tissue.
If this occurs, your dentist will need to advise you that complications have arisen and root canal therapy may be required.
An exposure on its own may be enough to trigger pulp tissue degeneration and the tooth's ultimate need for root canal treatment.
As an added factor, the tooth's potential to make a recovery may be hampered by the condition that lead to the need for the dental work in the first place (such as advanced tooth decay).
For these reasons, if an exposure has occurred during their work the dentist may advise that it's best to go ahead and perform root canal treatment now, so to avoid complications later (such as a painful tooth abscess or a situation that's technically more difficult to treat later on).
3) Testing your dentist may perform.
Once your dentist has suspicions about a tooth's need for root canal treatment, they'll likely perform additional testing to get a better idea of its current status. Besides just the suspect tooth, its neighbors as well as the matching tooth on the other side will probably be evaluated too.
Here are some of the tests that are frequently performed.
a) Percussion testing.
Because it's so simple, the first evaluation your dentist will probably perform is a percussion test. It involves their tapping on your tooth using the butt end of one of their dental instruments.
Don't worry. Your dentist will start off by just tapping lightly. Then, if they haven't yet gotten a response, tap increasingly harder.
Teeth that require root canal therapy frequently (but not always) respond to this test with pain. However, healthy but irritated teeth may respond in the same way too.
b) X-ray evaluation.
Your dentist will want to take x-rays of the suspected tooth, usually with each one taken at a slightly different angle so what isn't obvious on one may be on another.
The films may reveal evidence of the need for treatment (see "radiolucencies" above). But even if they don't, they can provide subtle hints that may help the dentist to identify which tooth has the problem.
c) Thermal testing.
Testing a tooth with hot and cold extremes can reveal a lot about the health status of its nerve tissue and its potential need for root canal.
- Problematic teeth frequently respond painfully to both hot and cold stimuli.
- In some cases, application of a hot stimulus will hurt whereas a cold one will create pain relief. (See this page's "home remedy" section below.)
- A key factor is how long the tooth's reaction lasts. With healthy teeth the pain usually subsides promptly after removing the stimulus. Pain that lingers is frequently a sign that a condition exists that will require root canal treatment.
d) Electric pulp testing.
An electric pulp tester is a device that's held against your tooth and passes a variable electrical current to it.
The general idea is that a healthy nerve will respond with a tingling sensation. A dead nerve will have no response (although there are reasons why a healthy tooth might not respond either).
As horrible as all of this sounds, in practice it isn't. Your dentist will start off with a very low tester setting and then gradually increase the current. At the first sign of a response from you, they'll immediately remove the tester from your tooth.
What should you do if you suspect that your tooth needs root canal therapy?
If you notice any of the signs and symptoms mentioned on this page, you should establish contact with your dentist's office and make arrangements to be evaluated and receive treatment in a time frame that they determine is warranted.
Don't make assumptions and don't delay.
Making a misdiagnosis about their tooth's status (by way of using website information like this) may deter some people from seeking treatment during that stage when another (simpler, cheaper and easier) repair might have been possible.
That's because some people won't seek treatment promptly if in their mind they think it's already too late, will cost too much money or else the idea of having root canal is too unnerving for them.
Don't make this mistake. If you have a tooth that's displaying symptoms, have your dentist evaluate it sooner rather than later. Doing so may make a big difference in what you experience, what type of treatment you require and its total cost.
If root canal is needed ... things you might try.
In the case where you do have a tooth that requires root canal therapy, there's not a lot, unfortunately, that you can do on your own to relieve your symptoms.
Home remedy: Try placing ice on your tooth.
In some cases where root canal therapy is needed, during that stage when a tooth has started to produce extended periods of constant pain, chilling it by way of holding a chip of ice against it may provide relief.
This won't work in all cases and in fact may irritate your tooth in some. So, ease into this remedy with testing. But when this solution does work, it can provide much needed relief until you can receive the treatment you require from your dentist.
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