Reference sources used for topic Electric Toothbrushes.

Topic initially created: February 2003 authorship information.


Biesbrock AR, Bayuk LM, Yates DS, Santana MV, and Bartizek RD. The clinical effectiveness of a novel power toothbrush and its impact on oral health. Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice. Vol. 15, No. 3. 2002.

Biesbrock AR, et. al. Clinical Evaluations of Plaque Removal Efficacy: An Advanced Rotating-Oscillating Power Toothbrush versus a Sonic Toothbrush. J Clin Dent. Vol. 18, No. 4. 2007.

Biesbrock AR, et. al. Removal efficacy of an advanced rotation-oscillating power toothbrush versus a new sonic toothbrush. Am J Dent. Vol. 21. 2008.

Black, C. et. al. A New Generation of Sonicare Power Toothbrushes - The FlexCare Series. Compendium of Continuing Education in Dentistry. Vol. 28, No. 9, Supplement 1. September 2007.

Bowen D. An evidence-based review of power toothbrushes. Compendium of Continuing Education in Oral Hygiene. Vol. 9, No. 1. 2002

Busscher HJ, et al. Energy transfer, volumetric expansion, and removal of oral biofilms by non-contact brushing. Eur. J. Oral Sci. Vol. 118. 2010

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The Use and Handling of Toothbrushes. Retrieved on December 12, 2009.

Deacon SA, et. al. Different powered toothbrushes for plaque control and gingival health (Review). The Cochrane Library. Issue 6. 2011.

Donly KJ, Vargas M, Meckes M, Sharma A, Kugel G, Hurley E. In vitro comparison of restoration wear and tensile strength following extended brushing with Sonicare and a manual toothbrush. Journal of Clinical Dentistry. Vol. 8, No. 1. 1997.

Emling RC, Yankell SL. The application of sonic technology to oral hygiene: The third generation of powered toothbrushes. Journal of Clinical Dentistry. Vol.8, No.1. 1997.

Friedman, J. The Complete Guide to Dental Health: How to Avoid Being Overcharged and Overtreated. Consumer Reports Books. Copyright 2002.

Goyal CR, et. al. Evaluation of a new multi-directional power toothbrush versus a marketed sonic toothbrush on plaque and gingivitis efficacy. Am J Dent. No. 25, Sp Is A. September 2012.

He Y, et al. Antimicrobial penetration in a dual-species oral biofilm after noncontact brushing: an in vitro study. Clin. Oral Invest. Vol. 18, No. 4. May 2014.

Heanue M, et. al. Manual versus powered tooth brushing for oral health. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 2003.

Ho HP, Niederman R. Effectiveness of the Sonicare sonic toothbrush on reduction of plaque, gingivitis, probing pocket depth and subgingival bacteria in adolescent orthodontic patients. Journal of Clinical Dentistry. Vol. 8, No. 1. 1997.

Hope CK, et al. Effects of dynamic fluid activity from an electric toothbrush on in vitro oral biofilms. J. Clin. Periodontol. Vol. 30, No. 7. July 2003

Jenkins W, et. al. Plaque Removal in vivo study Plaque removal efficacy of "new" vs. "old" Philips Sonicare ProResults brush heads. Phillips Sonicare data on file. 2010.

Johnson BD and McInnes C. Clinical evaluation of the efficacy and safety of a new sonic toothbrush. Journal of Periodontology. Vol.65, No. 7. July 1994

Klukowska M, et. al. A randomized 12-week clinical comparison of an oscillating-rotating toothbrush to a new sonic brush in the reduction of gingivitis and plaque. J Clin Dent. No. 25, Vol. 2. 2014.

Lake, M. How to Save Your Smile and Your Wallet: Dentistry: Myths and Realities, A Patient's Guide. BookSurge Publishing. Copyright 2006.

Lea SC, et. al. The effects of load and toothpaste on powered toothbrush vibrations. J. Dent. Vol. 35, No. 4. April 2007.

McCracken GI, et. al. The impact of powered and manual toothbrushing on incipient gingival recession. J. Clin. Periodontol. Vol. 36, No. 11. November 2009

Milleman, J. et. al. A Randomized, Crossover Study to Compare Plaque Removal Ability of Sonicare FlexCare and Elite 9000. Compendium of Continuing Education in Dentistry. Vol. 28, No. 9, Supplement 1. September 2007.

Niederman R. Manual versus powered toothbrushes: The Cochrane review. J Am Dent Assoc. September 2003.

Parini M, Pitt W. Removal of oral biofilms by bubbles. Journal of American Dental Assoc. Vol. 136, No. 12. December, 2005.

Putt M, et. al. Plaque removal efficacy of two novel Philips Sonicare DiamondClean brush heads. Phillips Sonicare data on file. 2010.

Robinson PJ, Maddalozzo D, Breslin S. A six month clinical comparison of the efficacy of the Sonicare and the Braun Oral-B electric toothbrushes on improving periodontal health in adlult periodontitis patients. Journal of Clinical Dentistry Vol. 8. 1997.

Rosema NA, et. al. Gingival abrasion and recession in manual and oscillating-rotating power brush users. Int. J. Dent. Hyg. Vol. 12, No. 4. November 2014

Saxer UP, Barbakow J, and Yankell SL. New studies on estimated and actual toothbrushing times and dentifrice use. Journal of Clinical Dentistry. Vol. 9. 1998

Schaeken MJM, et. al. A Randomized, Single-use Study to Compare Plaque Removal Ability of Sonicare FlexCare and Oral-B Triumph Professional Care 9000. Compendium Vol. 28, No. 9, Suppl. 1. Sept 2007

Sonis, S. Dental Secrets, 3rd Edition. Hanley & Belfus, Inc. Copyright 2003.

Stainacke K, Soderfeldt B, and Sjodin B. Compliance in the use of electric toothbrushes. Acta Odontol Scand. Vol. 53, No. 1. 1995.

Stanford CM, Srikantha R, Wu CD. Efficacy of the Sonicare Toothbrush Fluid Dynamic Action on Removal of Human Supragingival Plaque. Journal of Clinical Dentistry. Vol. 8, No. 1. 1997.

Taschner M, et. al. Comparing efficacy of plaque removal using professionally applied manual and power toothbrushes in 4- to 7-year-old children. Pediatric Dent. Vol. 34, No. 1. Jan-Feb 2012.

van der Mei HC, et al. Sequence of oral bacterial co-adhesion and non-contact brushing. J. Dent. Res. Vol. 86, No. 5. May 2007.

Van der Weijden GA, Timmerman MF, Nijboer A, Lie MA and Van der Velden U. A comparative study of electric toothbrushes for the effectiveness of plaque removal in relation to toothbrushing duration. Timer study. J Clinical Periodontology. Vol. 20, No. 7. 1993.

Van der Weijden GA, Timmerman MF, Piscaer M, IJerman Y, and Van der Velden U. Effect of Sonicare and Braun D17 on experimentally-induced gingivitis. J Dent Research 2001; 80 (Special Issue): 119,Abstr 672.

Veeregowda DH, et. al. Boundary lubrication by brushed salivary conditioning films and their degree of glycosylation. Clin Oral Invest. Vol. 16. 2012.

Verkaik MJ, et. al. Oral biofilm models for mechanical plaque removal. Clin Oral Invest. Vol. 14. 2010.

Warren PR, et al. A review of the clinical efficacy of the Oral-B oscillating/rotating power toothbrush and the Philips Sonicare toothbrush in normal subject populations. Int. Dent. J. Vol. 54. 2004

Williams K, et. al. Comparison of rotation/oscillation and sonic power toothbrushes on plaque and gingivitis for 10 weeks. American Journal of Dentistry. Vol. 22, No. 6. December 2009.

Yaacob M, et. al. Powered versus manual tooth brushing for oral health (Review). The Cochrane Library. Issue 6. 2014.

[Philips and Sonicare are registered trademarks of Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. Easy-start and QuadPacer are registered trademarks of Philips Oral HealthCare, Inc.]