Reference sources used for topic Electric Toothbrushes.

Topic created: February 2003
Last revision / evaluation: 05/10/17 authorship information.


Biesbrock AR, Bayuk LM, Yates DS, Santana MV, and Bartizek RD. The clinical effectiveness of a novel power toothbrush and its impact on oral health. Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice. Vol. 15, No. 3. 2002.

Biesbrock AR, et. al. Clinical Evaluations of Plaque Removal Efficacy: An Advanced Rotating-Oscillating Power Toothbrush versus a Sonic Toothbrush. J Clin Dent. Vol. 18, No. 4. 2007.

Biesbrock AR, et. al. Removal efficacy of an advanced rotation-oscillating power toothbrush versus a new sonic toothbrush. Am J Dent. Vol. 21. 2008.

Black, C. et. al. A New Generation of Sonicare Power Toothbrushes - The FlexCare Series. Compendium of Continuing Education in Dentistry. Vol. 28, No. 9, Supplement 1. September 2007.

Bowen D. An evidence-based review of power toothbrushes. Compendium of Continuing Education in Oral Hygiene. Vol. 9, No. 1. 2002

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The Use and Handling of Toothbrushes. Retrieved on December 12, 2009.

Deacon SA, et. al. Different powered toothbrushes for plaque control and gingival health (Review). The Cochrane Library. Issue 6. 2011.

Donly KJ, Vargas M, Meckes M, Sharma A, Kugel G, Hurley E. In vitro comparison of restoration wear and tensile strength following extended brushing with Sonicare and a manual toothbrush. Journal of Clinical Dentistry. Vol. 8, No. 1. 1997.

Emling RC, Yankell SL. The application of sonic technology to oral hygiene: The third generation of powered toothbrushes. Journal of Clinical Dentistry. Vol.8, No.1. 1997.

Friedman, J. The Complete Guide to Dental Health: How to Avoid Being Overcharged and Overtreated. Consumer Reports Books. Copyright 2002.

Goyal CR, et. al. Evaluation of a new multi-directional power toothbrush versus a marketed sonic toothbrush on plaque and gingivitis efficacy. Am J Dent. No. 25, Sp Is A. September 2012.

Heanue M, et. al. Manual versus powered tooth brushing for oral health. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 2003.

Ho HP, Niederman R. Effectiveness of the Sonicare sonic toothbrush on reduction of plaque, gingivitis, probing pocket depth and subgingival bacteria in adolescent orthodontic patients. Journal of Clinical Dentistry. Vol. 8, No. 1. 1997.

Jenkins W, et. al. Plaque Removal in vivo study Plaque removal efficacy of "new" vs. "old" Philips Sonicare ProResults brush heads. Phillips Sonicare data on file. 2010.

Johnson BD and McInnes C. Clinical evaluation of the efficacy and safety of a new sonic toothbrush. Journal of Periodontology. Vol.65, No. 7. July 1994

Klukowska M, et. al. A randomized 12-week clinical comparison of an oscillating-rotating toothbrush to a new sonic brush in the reduction of gingivitis and plaque. J Clin Dent. No. 25, Vol. 2. 2014.

Lake, M. How to Save Your Smile and Your Wallet: Dentistry: Myths and Realities, A Patient's Guide. BookSurge Publishing. Copyright 2006.

Lea SC, et. al. The effects of load and toothpaste on powered toothbrush vibrations. J. Dent. Vol. 35, No. 4. April 2007.

McCracken GI, et. al. The impact of powered and manual toothbrushing on incipient gingival recession. J. Clin. Periodontol. Vol. 36, No. 11. November 2009

Milleman, J. et. al. A Randomized, Crossover Study to Compare Plaque Removal Ability of Sonicare FlexCare and Elite 9000. Compendium of Continuing Education in Dentistry. Vol. 28, No. 9, Supplement 1. September 2007.

Niederman R. Manual versus powered toothbrushes: The Cochrane review. J Am Dent Assoc. September 2003.

Parini M, Pitt W. Removal of oral biofilms by bubbles. Journal of American Dental Assoc. Vol. 136, No. 12. December, 2005.

Putt M, et. al. Plaque removal efficacy of two novel Philips Sonicare DiamondClean brush heads. Phillips Sonicare data on file. 2010.

Robinson PJ, Maddalozzo D, Breslin S. A six month clinical comparison of the efficacy of the Sonicare and the Braun Oral-B electric toothbrushes on improving periodontal health in adlult periodontitis patients. Journal of Clinical Dentistry Vol. 8. 1997.

Rosema NA, et. al. Gingival abrasion and recession in manual and oscillating-rotating power brush users. Int. J. Dent. Hyg. Vol. 12, No. 4. November 2014

Saxer UP, Barbakow J, and Yankell SL. New studies on estimated and actual toothbrushing times and dentifrice use. Journal of Clinical Dentistry. Vol. 9. 1998

Schaeken MJM, et. al. A Randomized, Single-use Study to Compare Plaque Removal Ability of Sonicare FlexCare and Oral-B Triumph Professional Care 9000. Compendium Vol. 28, No. 9, Suppl. 1. Sept 2007

Sonis, S. Dental Secrets, 3rd Edition. Hanley & Belfus, Inc. Copyright 2003.

Stainacke K, Soderfeldt B, and Sjodin B. Compliance in the use of electric toothbrushes. Acta Odontol Scand. Vol. 53, No. 1. 1995.

Stanford CM, Srikantha R, Wu CD. Efficacy of the Sonicare Toothbrush Fluid Dynamic Action on Removal of Human Supragingival Plaque. Journal of Clinical Dentistry. Vol. 8, No. 1. 1997.

Taschner M, et. al. Comparing efficacy of plaque removal using professionally applied manual and power toothbrushes in 4- to 7-year-old children. Pediatric Dent. Vol. 34, No. 1. Jan-Feb 2012.

Van der Weijden GA, Timmerman MF, Nijboer A, Lie MA and Van der Velden U. A comparative study of electric toothbrushes for the effectiveness of plaque removal in relation to toothbrushing duration. Timer study. J Clinical Periodontology. Vol. 20, No. 7. 1993.

Van der Weijden GA, Timmerman MF, Piscaer M, IJerman Y, and Van der Velden U. Effect of Sonicare and Braun D17 on experimentally-induced gingivitis. J Dent Research 2001; 80 (Special Issue): 119,Abstr 672.

Veeregowda DH, et. al. Boundary lubrication by brushed salivary conditioning films and their degree of glycosylation. Clin Oral Invest. Vol. 16. 2012.

Verkaik MJ, et. al. Oral biofilm models for mechanical plaque removal. Clin Oral Invest. Vol. 14. 2010.

Williams K, et. al. Comparison of rotation/oscillation and sonic power toothbrushes on plaque and gingivitis for 10 weeks. American Journal of Dentistry. Vol. 22, No. 6. December 2009.

Yaacob M, et. al. Powered versus manual tooth brushing for oral health (Review). The Cochrane Library. Issue 6. 2014.

[Philips and Sonicare are registered trademarks of Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. Easy-start and QuadPacer are registered trademarks of Philips Oral HealthCare, Inc.]


Topic Menu ▶  Powered Toothbrushes

  • Sonicare Toothbrushes Pages -
    • Sonicare models reviewed. - A comprehensive review of the features/prices of all of the current models of the Sonicare lineup. Differences and comparisons between each of the individual product lines are pointed out.
    • The best Sonicare models - A narrative that outlines how to determine which Sonicare model makes the best choice for you. It discusses Sonicare features, which of these features we think are important to have, and which models seem to offer a reasonable manifestation of them.
    • How sonic toothbrushes work. / Effectiveness. - If you're wondering how sonic toothbrushes work and what's special about the brushing action they create, this page explains.
  • Sonicare Features Pages -
    • Brush Heads - Information about Sonicare brush heads, including: What styles of heads are available, in which sizes? Which heads can be used with which models? Comparative cleaning efficiency. How long does a brush head last? Screw-on vs. Click-on design. Standard vs. Compact sizes.
    • Sonicare brushing features - An outline of the various brushing modes different Sonicare models have, and what we think of each of them. It explains the importance of having the 31,000 strokes-per-minute brushing action.
      We also explain details about the Easy-start, Smartimer, KidTimer, QuadPacer, BrushPacer and Smartphone App functions (how they work, what we think of them).
    • Additional Sonicare features - We discuss Sonicare's UV brush head sanitizer in this section. We also explain features and issues associated with Sonicare battery types, charging units, working voltages, battery replacement and travel features.
  • Oral-b Toothbrushes Pages -
    • All Oral-B rechargeable models - A comprehensive review of the features/prices of all of the current Oral-b rechargeable models. Some comparisons between each of the individual toothbrush lines are made.
    • The best Oral-B models - Our narrative outlining how to figure out which model makes the best choice for you. It covers Oral-b features, which of them we think are important to have, and which models seem to offer a reasonable manifestation of them.
  • Oral-b Features Pages -
    • Brush heads - Details about Oral-B replacement brush heads: styles, options, differences. Which are the best ones?
    • Brushing modes - An explanation of the different Oral-B brushing modes found on various models. The importance of 3D vs. 2D brushing action.
    • Additional Oral-b features - Information about the Oral-b Bluetooth/Smartphone app and the wireless Smartguide, as well as what we think of them. Also details about Oral-b brushing timers, quadrant timers and brushing pressure indicators, as well as charging units, operating voltages and battery types.
  • More about electric toothbrushes Pages -
    • Powered vs. Manual toothbrushes - Do you really need an electric toothbrush? This page can help you to decide. Advantages and potential benefits of electrics. What does research say?
    • Rotary electric toothbrushes - Types and brands of rotary-brush head powered toothbrushes (Rota-dent, Interplak, Braun Oral B). Pros and cons of their design differences.
    • The best electric toothbrushes for Senior Citizens. - Elder persons in different age groups, with differing situations, need different features. This page discusses the pros and cons of various models in meeting those needs.
  • Page reference sources.