Reference sources used for topic Bad Breath.

Topic originally created: October, 2000 authorship information.


Amoian B, et al. The clinical evaluation of Vi-one chlorhexidine mouthwash on plaque-induced gingivitis: A double-blind randomized clinical trial. Electron. Physician. Vol. 9, No. 9. September 2017

Ayad F, et. al. A Comparative Investigation to Evaluate the Clinical Efficacy of an Alcohol-Free CPC-Containing Mouthwash as Compared to a Control Mouthwash in Controlling Dental Plaque and Gingivitis: A Six-Month Clinical Study on Adults in San Jose, Costa Rica. J. Clin. Dent. Vol. 22, Special Issue. 2011

Aydin M, et al. Diagnostic value of halitosis examination methods. Compend. Contin. Educ. Dent. Vol. 37, No. 3. March 2016.

Aylikci BU, et. al. Halitosis: From diagnosis to management. J Nat Sci Biol Med. Vol. 4, No. 1. Jan­Jun 2013.

Bartold M. Update on Breath malodor. Decisions in Dentistry. Vol. 2, No. 2. February 2016.

Bicak DA. A Current Approach to Halitosis and Oral Malodor- A Mini Review. Open Dent. J. Vol. 12. 2018

Bernie, Kristy : The Causes and Management of Oral Malodor. Dentistry Today. Vol. 21, No. 2. 2002.

Blom T, et. al. The effect of mouthrinses on oral malodor: a systematic review. Int. J. Dent. Hygiene. Vol. 10. 2012

Calil CM, et. al. Effects of stress hormones on the production of volatile sulfur compounds by periodontopathogenic bacteria. Braz. Oral Res. Vol. 28, No. 1. 2014

Cortelli JR, et. al. Halitosis: A review of associated factors and therapeutic approach. Braz. Oral Res. Vol. 22, Special issue no. 1. 2008

Dadamio J, et. al. Efficacy of different mouthrinse formulations in reducing oral malodour: a randomized clinical trial. J. Clin. Periodontol. Vol. 40, No. 5. May 2013.

Danser MM, et. al. Tongue coating and tongue brushing: a literature review. Int J Dent Hygiene Vol. 1. August 2003.

De Luca-Monasterios F, et al. [Effect of chewing gum on halitosis.] Med. Clin. (Barc). Vol 143, No. 2. February 2014.

Delanghe G, et al. Halitosis, foetor ex ore. Ned. Tijdschr. Tandheelkd. Vol. 105, No. 9. September 1998.

Falcao DP, et al. Assessment of the accuracy of portable monitors for halitosis evaluation in subjects without malodor complaint. Are they reliable for clinical practice? J. Appl. Oral Sci. Vol 25, No. 5. 2017

Fedorowicz Z, et. al. Mouthrinses for the treatment of halitosis (Review). The Cochrane Library. Issue 4. 2008

Frascella, John : Odor Reduction Potential of a Chlorine Dioxide Mouthrinse. Journal of Clinical Dentistry. Vol. 9,No. 2. 1998.

Frascella, John : Efficacy of a Chlorine Dioxide Containing Mouthrinse in Oral Malodor. Compendium. Vol. 21, No. 3. 2000.

Friedman, J. The Complete Guide to Dental Health: How to Avoid Being Overcharged and Overtreated. Consumer Reports Books. Copyright 2002.

Garrett NR. Poor oral hygiene, wearing dentures at night, perceptions of mouth dryness and burning, and lower educational level may be related to oral malodor in denture wearers. J. Evid. Based Dent. Pract. Vol. 10, No. 1. March 2010

Gera I. The bacterial biofilm and the possibilities of chemical plaque control. Literature review. Fogorv Sz. Vol. 101, No. 3. June 2008

Goldberg S, et al. Isolation of Enterobacteriaceae from the mouth and potential association with malodor. J. Dent. Res. Vol. 76, No. 11. November 1997.

Hughes P. Therapeutic Mouthrinsing: An effective component to oral hygiene. Continuing Education Course. Last revised October 20, 2015.

Jiun IL, et al. Association Between Oral Hygiene Status and Halitosis Among Smokers and Nonsmokers. Oral Health Prev. Dent. Vol. 13, No. 5. 2015

Kameyama T. Experimentally induced tongue cancer by application of 4-Nitroquinoline 1-oxide. J. Jpn. Stomatol. Soc. Vol. 18. 1969.

Kenney EB. et al. Oxidation reduction potential of developing plaque, periodontal pockets and gingival sulci. J. Periodontol. Vol. 40, No. 11. November 1969.

Lake, M. How to Save Your Smile and Your Wallet: Dentistry: Myths and Realities, A Patient's Guide. BookSurge Publishing. Copyright 2006.

Lenton, P. et. al. Counseling and Treating Bad Breath Patients: A Step-By-Step Approach. Last revised 8/3/2012. Accessed 10/2/2014.

Loesche, Walter : The effects of antimicrobial mouthrinses on oral malodor and their status relative to US Food and Drug Administration regulations. Quintessence International. Vol. 30, No.5. 1999.

Lourith N, et. al. Oral malodour and active ingredients for treatment. Int. J. Cosmet. Sci. Vol. 32, No. 5. October 2010

Malcmacher, Louis : A New Protocol for Halitosis Treatment. Dentistry Today. Vol.19, No.19. 2000.

Nalcaci R, et al. Oral malodor and removable complete dentures in the elderly. Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol. Endod. Vol 105, No. 6. June 2008

Navada R, et al. Oral malodor reduction from a zinc-containing toothpaste. J. Clin. Dent. Vol. 19, No. 2. 2008

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Pray, W. Steven : Consult Your Pharmacist - Afraid to Exhale? Help for Halitosis. U.S. Pharmacist 24(5), 1999.

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Quirynen M, et. al. Characteristics of 2000 patients who visited a halitosis clinic. J. Clin. Periodontol. Vol. 36, No. 11. November 2009.

Redmond AM, et al. Endocarditis after Use of Tongue Scraper. EID Journal. Vol. 13, No. 9. September 2007.

Roldan S, et. al. The effects of a new mouthrinse containing chlorhexidine, cetylpyridinium chloride and zinc lactate on the microflora of oral halitosis patients: a dual-centre, double-blind placebo-controlled study. J. Clin. Periodont. Vol. 30, No. 5. May 2003

Rosenberg, Mel : Clinical Assessment of Bad Breath: Current Concepts. Journal of the American Dental Association. 127, 1996.

Rosing CK, et. al. Effect of chewing gums on the production of volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) in vivo. Acta Odontol. Latinam. Vol. 22, No. 1. 2009

Rosing CK, et. al. Halitosis: An overview of epidemiology, etiology and clinical management. Braz. Oral Res. Vol. 25, No.5. Sep - Oct 2011

Sanz, M. et al.: Fundamentals of Breath Malodour. Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice. Vol. 2, No. 4. November 2001.

Schumacher MG, et al. Evaluation of a halitosis clinic over a period of eleven years. Swiss Dent. J. Vol. 127, No. 10. October 2017.

Sharma NC, et. al. Clinical effectiveness of a dentifrice containing triclosan and a copolymer for controlling breath odor. Am. J. Dent. Vol. 20, No. 2. April 2007.

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Verran J. Malodour in denture wearers: an ill-defined problem. Oral Dis. Vol. 11. Sup. 1. 2005

Washio J, et. al. Hydrogen sulfide-producing bacteria in tongue biofilm and their relationship with oral malodour. J Medical Microbiology. Vol. 54. 2005.

Winkel EG, et al. Appropriate sample bags and syringes for preserving breath samples in breath odor research: a technical note. J. Breath Res. Vol. 2, No. 1. March 2008.

Yaegaki K, et. al. Examination, Classification, and Treatment of Halitosis; Clinical Perspectives. J Can Dent Assoc. Vol. 66. 2000

Yoo JI, et al. The Effect of Probiotics on Halitosis: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Probiotics Antimicrob. Proteins. Vol. 11, No. 1. March 2019.

Zurcher A, et. al. Diagnosis, Prevalence, and Treatment of Halitosis. Curr Oral Health Rep. 2014. Accessed 6/24/2015.