Reference sources used for Dental Braces topics.

Lingual Braces - Topic created January 2009.   Last revision/evaluation 08/25/2014.
The Invisalign® system - Topic created May 2008.   Last revision/evaluation 06/18/2017.
Ceramic Braces - Topic created February 2009.   Last revision/evaluation 04/13/2015. authorship information.


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Boyd RL. Esthetic Orthodontic Treatment Using the Invisalign Appliance for Moderate to Complex Malocclusions. J. Dent. Ed. Vol.72, No. 8. August 2008

Caniklioglu, C. Patient discomfort: a comparison between lingual and labial fixed appliances. Angle Orthod. Vol. 75, No. 1. Jan. 2005.

Chang CS, et. al. An assessment of the effectiveness of mechanical and chemical cleaning of Essix orthodontic retainer. J Orthod. Vol. 41, No. 2. June 2014.

Chenin, D. et al. Orthodontic treatment with a series of removable appliances. J Am Dental Assoc. Vol. 134, No. 9. 2003.

Cordeiro de Oliveria S, et. al. Impact of brackets on smile esthetics: Laypersons and orthodontists perceptions. Dental Press J. Orthod. Vol. 17, No. 5. Sept-Oct 2012.

Djeu, G. Outcome assessment of Invisalign and tradtional orthodontic treatment compared with the American Board of Orthodontics objecive grading system. Am J of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics. Vol. 128, No. 3. September, 2005.

Echarri P. Revisiting the history of lingual orthodontics: a basis for the future. Semin Orthod. Vol. 12. 2006.

Feu D, et. al. Esthetic perception and economic value of orthodontic appliances by lay Brazilian adults. Dental Press J. of Orthod. Vol. 17, No. 5. Sept-Oct 2012.

Friedman, J. The Complete Guide to Dental Health: How to Avoid Being Overcharged and Overtreated. Consumer Reports Books. Copyright 2002.

Giancotti, A. et al. Extraction treatment using Invisalign ® technique. Prog Orthod. Vol. 7, No. 1. 2006.

Heier EE, et. al. Periodontal implications of bonded versus removable retainers. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. Vol. 112, No. 6. Dec. 1997

Hichens L, et. al. Cost-effectiveness and patient satisfaction: Hawley and vacuum-formed retainers. European J. Orthod. Vol. 29. 2007

Jeremiah HG, et. al. Social perceptions of adults wearing orthodontic appliances: a cross-sectional study. Eur J Orthod. Vol. 33, No. 5. Oct. 2011.

Joffe, L. Invisalign: early experiences. J of Orthodontics. Vol. 30, No. 4. December, 2003

Keenan AV. No statistically significant results for two removable orthodontic retainers. Evid Based Dent. Vol. 13, No. 4. 2012

Lai C, et. al. Orthodontic retention procedures in Switzerland. Swiss Dent. J. Vol. 124. June 2014.

Lake, M. How to Save Your Smile and Your Wallet: Dentistry: Myths and Realities, A Patient's Guide. BookSurge Publishing. Copyright 2006.

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Meade MJ, et. al. Retention protocols and use of vacuum-formed retainers among specialist orthodontists. J. Orthod. Vol. 40, No. 4. December 2013.

Melkos, A. Advances in digital technology and orthodontics: A reference to the Invisalign method. Med Sci Monit. Vol. 11, No. 5. May, 2005.

Moskowitz, E. The New "Invisible" Orthodontic Appliances. NYSDJ. June/July 2005.

Nedwed, V. et al. Motivation, acceptance and problems of Invisalign patients. J Orofacial Orthopedics. Vol. 66 , No. 2. 2005

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O'Rourke N, et. al. Effectiveness of bonded and vacuum-formed retainers: A prospective randomized controlled clinical trial. Am. J. Orthod. Dentofacial Orthop. Vol. 150, No. 3. September 2016.

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Pratt M, et. al. Patient compliance with orthodontic retainers in the postretention phase. Am. J. Orthod. Dentofacial Orthop. Vol. 140. 2011

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Sawhney B. Orthodontice Retainers: A survey of patient satisfaction and compliance. University of Western Ontario Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository. Paper 1917. 2013
Slater, R. The Rise of Lingual. More demand, fewer issues. Premium Practice Dentistry. Nov. 2011.

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Steen Law, S et. al. An evaluation of preoperative ibuprofen for treatment of pain associated with orthodontic separator placement. Am. J. Orthod. Dentofacial. Orthop. Vol. 118, No. 6. December, 2000.

Valiathan M, et. al. Results of a survey-based study to identify common retention practices in the United States. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. Vol. 137, No. 2. Feb. 2010

Wan J, et. al. Speech effects of Hawley and vacuum-formed retainers by acoustic analysis: A single-center randomized controlled trial. Angle Orthod. Vol. 87, No 2. March 2017.

Zachrisson, B. Dental health assessed more than 10 years after interproximal enamel reduction of mandibular anterior teeth. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. Vol. 131, No. 2. February 2007.




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