How long do crowns last? / Why do they need to be replaced? -

Statistics about dental crown longevity from research. | Examples of reasons for crown replacement (with pictures): breakage, perforation (hole formation), tooth decay, failed cosmetic appearance.

How long should a dental crown last?

  • It can be expected that a crown should provide service for somewhere between five and fifteen years (as documented by our statistics section below).

    One that has only lasted five years would most likely be a disappointment to your dentist. It's probably their hope that any crown they make for you will last ten years or longer.

  • As evidence of what's expected, many dental insurance plans stipulate that they'll only pay for replacements after the previous crown has been in place for 5 years.
  • Depending on: 1) The amount of stress, wear and tear the crown is exposed to (chewing and biting forces, trauma, tooth grinding)  and  2) How well you keep its tooth free of dental plaque,  a crown can last fairly indefinitely.

 

a) Statistics about crown longevity taken from dental research.

  • Pjetursson (2007) performed a literature review of published research and from it estimated a survival rate of 94% for crowns at 5 years and 90% at 10 years.
  • A study by Reitemeier (2013) determined that at the 8-year mark, the survival rate for porcelain-fused-to-metal (PFM) crowns lay on the order of 94% (138 teeth studied, private practice setting).
  • De Backer (2007) evaluated teeth that had been crowned by student clinicians at a dental school over a 16 to 20 year period. The 18-year survival rate calculated was 75%.
  • Walton (2013) reported on the long-term outcome for 2,340 crowns placed by an individual prosthodontist (a dental specialist). A survival rate of 97% was found at 10 years, 85% at 25 years.

Section references - Pjetursson, Reitemeier, De Backer, Walton

b) The relative longevity of different types of dental crowns.

A literature review performed by Fernandes evaluated studies published between 1974 and 2014 pertaining to the topic of dental restoration survival rates. It concluded that:

  • ... gold restorations are still the “gold standard” with a 96% over 10 years survival rate, ...
  • ... followed by porcelain-fused-to-metal crowns (PFM) (90% over 10 years), ...
  • ... and all-ceramic crowns (75-80% over 10 years).

Section references - Fernandes

(If you need some background information, here's a link to our page about types of dental crowns.)

Our comments.

Due to recent advances in materials and fabrication techniques, the strength characteristics of some of the kinds of all-ceramic crowns available to dentists nowadays are substantially superior than others.

And directly to this point, the Fernandes paper reported survival rates for some modern, high-strength all-ceramic crowns (a very limited select group) to be on the same order as PFM crowns (discussed below).

The survival of the fittest seems to apply.

Once surviving past an initial period, even those kinds of all-ceramic crowns that don't have the highest strength characteristics may ultimately provide service for as long as other types of crowns.

A study by Dhima evaluated 226 all-ceramics placed in both front and back-tooth applications. It found that:

  • 6% had failed by 3.3 years (on average) after placement.
  • Of those that hadn't failed, at 5 years 95% were still in service, at 10 years 93%.

Section references - Dhima

Of course, a dentist choosing to place a lower-strength type of crown in a high-stress (back tooth) application, in hopes that it would survive the first few years, thus offering evidence that the restoration should provide lasting service, would seem to be a dubious practice.

Can a failed crown on a tooth be replaced?

In most cases, the answer is most likely to be yes.

  • If just the crown itself has experience failure (cracked, broken, no longer has acceptable esthetics, etc...), replacement may be simple and straightforward and just involve repeating the tooth's original crowning process.
  • If the previous crown's failure is associated with structural damage to the tooth (it has broken, now has extensive decay, etc...), making a new one may or may not be possible. It simply depends on how much sound tooth structure remains for the dentist to work with.

Generally speaking, crowns are a method by which teeth are rebuilt. So despite however small the nub of tooth that remains, a replacement restoration can likely be made.


Reasons why a dental crown might need to be replaced.

There can be a variety of reasons why any one crown might need to be slated for replacement. We've listed what we consider the most likely ones below, along with an indication of the type of restoration that tends to be most involved with that kind of problem. (PFM = porcelain fused to metal crown.)

  1. Damage - Cracked or broken crowns (all-ceramic, PFM).
  2. Excessive wear - Hole formation (metal). Wear of opposing teeth (PFM).
  3. Complications with tooth decay - (All types are equally at risk.)
  4. Deteriorated cosmetic appearance - (Any porcelain-surfaced crown placed on a front tooth but especially PFM.)

 


Examples of dental crown failure -

A) The dental crown has broken or been damaged.

Dental crowns can break, or more precisely, the porcelain component of one may fracture. This type of failure is rare for an all-metal (gold) crown.

1) Broken porcelain crowns.

a) All-ceramic.

Some dental crowns have a construction where their full thickness is ceramic (e.g. all-ceramic crowns, porcelain jackets).

If this type of restoration fractures, it's possible that the break extends through its full thickness. If so, it will compromise both the crown's structural integrity and the impervious seal it creates over its tooth. The only solution is to remake the restoration, no repair is possible.

Making the right choice initially.

This is a prime reason why the type of crown you have placed on a back tooth should have a proven history of being able to withstand the level of forces involved. All-metal and porcelain-fused-to-metal ones do. Many types of all-ceramics don't.

High-strength all-ceramics.

Currently, there are two types of high-strength dental ceramics that are most talked about for use with back teeth. One is lithium disilicate (IPS e.max®) and the other is zirconia (BruxZir®).

In terms of strength, zirconia tests as the stronger of the two. But Fernandes cites sources that suggest that crowns made using the e.Max® product have a 10-year survival rate of 90% (similar to PFM crowns), whereas with zirconia it's only 88% at 5 years.

Section references - Fernandes

High-strength construction.

In applications where crown strength is of greatest concern (like with back teeth), monolithic crown construction probably makes the better choice.

The term "monolithic" means that the restoration has been ground out of a single block of ceramic (CAD/CAM technology). The other method of construction is one where layers of porcelain are fused together to create the crown.

Dhima determined that the most common reason for all-ceramic failure was fracture of the core of layered crowns. Monolithic restorations did not suffer from this problem as often and therefore were suggested for use on posterior teeth.

Section references - Dhima

Repair solutions for all-ceramic restorations.
  • As stated above, with cracking or breakage that involves the full thickness of the ceramic, no repair is possible and replacement is required before the remainder of the restoration breaks free or decay has a chance to form underneath it.
  • With small chips (cases where the seal of the crown remains intact), just rounding off or smoothing the affected area with a dental drill may suffice.
  • It's possible that moderate-sized porcelain defects can be patched, although the specific type of ceramic used to make the crown may play a role in their success.

    Generally speaking, these types of repairs are just patches and likely won't provide the same lasting service that crown replacement would. (See our PFM section below for more details about repairing dental ceramics.)

 

Picture of a broken porcelain-fused-to-metal dental crown on a front tooth.

A broken PFM dental crown.

b) Porcelain-fused-to-metal.

Background

A porcelain-fused-to-metal (PFM) crown has two components. One is a thimble of metal that covers over your tooth. The other is a layer of porcelain that's been fused over it so to create a tooth-like appearance.

In situations where a PFM has broken, it's typically the layer of porcelain that's fractured off (frequently revealing the metal stub that lies underneath). It's rare that the metal thimble itself has broken.

That means that after breaking, the seal of the crown over the tooth is still basically intact. But depending on the amount of porcelain that has come off, it's aesthetics or function may be seriously compromised.

Repair solutions for PFM crowns.
  • Minor damage might not be much of a concern and possibly remedied by just smoothing off the area using a dental drill.
  • For moderate defects, placing a patch may be possible. The general difficulty is that the crown's porcelain surface was created in a high-heat furnace but its repair must be made in the patient's mouth.

    Tooth-colored dental restorative (dental composite) can be bonded to porcelain surfaces (via acid-etching, silane coupling) but careful case selection is needed. Overall, these types of fixes are unlikely to provide the same predictable, long-term service that placing a new crown can. However, repair may offer a cost-effective solution over the interim.

    Ozcam evaluated 289 repaired PFM restorations. If failure did occur, it usually took place within the first 3 months. At 3 years the survival rate for the patches was 89%. The most common reasons for repair loss were trauma, chewing failure and the fix having been performed under less than ideal conditions (the tooth couldn't be kept saliva-free during its procedure).

  • In cases where major damage has occurred (a large portion of the restoration is involved), the crown will simply need to be replaced.

Section references - Ozcan

How frequently is this issue a problem?

a) A study by Behr investigated the subject of PFM crown veneer chipping. It evaluated 997 restorations that had been placed on both front and back teeth.

  • Porcelain loss was only experienced by 1.7% of all of the crowns over a 10-year period.
  • PFM crowns on posterior teeth (molars and premolars) fared the worst with an incidence rate of 2.7% chipping at 10 years.

Overall the findings of this study demonstrate that PFM crowns typically provide lasting service, even when placed on teeth that are regularly exposed to comparatively heavy chewing forces.

b) Reitemeier reported higher numbers. This paper determined that at 10 years the incident rate of ceramic defect lay on the order of 11%. However, it was specifically stated that the majority of events were either not treated or just smoothed and/or polished. Only 10% of the failures (and therefore only about 1% of all crowns studied) required repair or crown removal.

Section references - Behr, Reitemeier

Picture of an access cavity made through a tooth's dental crown.

This access cavity for root canal treatment has been made through the tooth's dental crown.

2) Damage as a consequence of having root canal treatment.

The first step of performing root canal treatment is creating an "access cavity." This is the opening through which the dentist accesses the interior of the tooth and performs their work.

If the crown can't be removed first, the hole will need to be made right through it. And doing so compromises the restoration's seal over the tooth (even placing a filling in the opening can't predictably reestablish it).

Repair solutions.

Ideal treatment involves replacing the crown after the root canal therapy has been completed. We discuss this topic, and explain possible alternatives and outcomes, on this page: Must a crown be replaced following root canal treatment?

B) Excessive wear.

Background - The ideal crown.

Dental crowns aren't necessarily more wear-resistant than your own natural teeth, nor is it in your best interest that one should be.

The ideal dental crown would be one made out of a material that has the same wear characteristics as tooth enamel. This way neither the crown nor your natural teeth would wear the other excessively. (FYI: Gold crowns and some types of all-ceramic ones come closest in this regard.)

Picture of a perforated gold dental crown.

This gold crown has a hole in it.

1) Perforations (crowns with holes).
Especially in instances where a person has a tooth clenching or grinding habit, a crown will sometimes develop a hole on its chewing surface, where it makes contact with an opposing tooth (a tooth that it bites against).

Repair solution - Since the hole compromises the seal of the crown, a new one should be made before that point in time when dental plaque has had a chance to seep under and start a cavity.

2) Worn opposing teeth.

In some cases, the problem is not that the crown has worn but instead that it has caused excessive wear of the teeth it opposes.

Repair solution - Making a replacement crown out of a material (gold, dental ceramic) that is less abrasive to tooth enamel can slow the wear rate.

Animation showing how a cavity can extend underneath a dental crown.

Tooth decay can extend underneath the crown.

C) Recurrent tooth decay.

While a dental crown can't be damaged by decay, the tooth on which it's cemented certainly can be. If dental plaque is allowed to accumulate on tooth surfaces that lie beyond the edges of its crown, a cavity can form.

Dentists use the term "recurrent decay" to refer to this scenario, meaning the formation of a new cavity on a tooth that has already had a restoration placed on it.

There are two main difficulties associated with decay forming in this location.

  • It's difficult for the dentist to know the full extent of the cavity. Decay that has spread underneath the crown (see illustration) is both hard to evaluate, access and know for certain that it's been totally removed.
  • A basic tenant of crown placement is that its edges lie on sound tooth structure (this creates the most predictable, lasting seal over the tooth). Placing a filling right at the edge of a crown breaks this rule.

 

Repair solutions.

That's not to say that dentists never solve this problem by just going ahead and placing a filling. But doing so is patchwork dentistry.

The textbook solution is to remove the existing restoration, remove the decay and then make a new crown for the tooth.

How frequently is this issue a problem?

The study by Behr cited above also investigated the decay rate of teeth that had received crowns.

  • At 5 years, 1.3% of the crowned teeth were found to have developed a cavity.
  • At 10 years, 2.8% had.

Overall this study suggests that the formation of recurrent decay is a present but relatively minor complication. The tooth's risk increases over time.

D) The cosmetic appearance of the crown has become objectionable.

1) The crown's edge has become visible and it has a grey appearance.

Background.

Over time, the gum line of a tooth may recede. This is especially likely in those cases where a person has been lax in their brushing and flossing habits.

If enough recession takes place, the edge of a crown (which was originally tucked out of sight just below the gum line) will become visible.

Picture of a tooth whose gum recession reveals the dark edge of its PFM dental crown.

A hint of the metal edge of this PFM crown has started to show.

a) The problem with PFM's.
Inherent to porcelain-fused-to-metal crowns is the fact that their edge typically shows some darkness (a hint of the grey metal that lies underneath their porcelain).

And if enough gum recession occurs, this dark edge will become visible, thus spoiling the appearance of the crown.

b) All-ceramic crowns.

Because they don't have a metal component, all-ceramic restorations don't suffer from the grey-line problem.

However, gum recession can expose that portion of the tooth (usually the root) that lies beyond the edge of the crown. And this part usually appears darker, or at least in some way different in color from the crown itself, thus spoiling the overall appearance of the tooth.

Repair solutions.
  • A dentist may make an attempt to cover over the discoloration with dental bonding (a white filling). However, even if this gives an acceptable outcome initially (which is not always the case), it's never a long-term solution.
  • The only lasting repair is to replace the crown with a new one. One that extends towards the gum line further so to cover the now revealed portion of the tooth.

 

How often does the dark-line problem occur?

We don't have a precise estimate of how often the PFM/dark-edge issue is problematic enough that crown replacement is needed.

We did find a study (Walton) that stated that out of 2211 PFM's evaluated over a 25-year period, 1% of them needed to be replaced due to "unacceptable esthetics," on average after 14 years of service.

When considering that number, the following should be kept in mind:

  • The restorations evaluated were all placed by a prosthodontist (crown specialist), who would be considered expert at minimizing the potential for this complication.
  • Some of the failures reported would be related to other cosmetic deficiencies too, not just the visibility of a dark line.

With both caveats considered, it seems likely that this is just an "issue" rather than an inevitable significant problem with PFM's.

Section references - Walton

2) The color of the dental crown no longer matches its neighboring teeth.

Background.
A picture of a dental crown that no longer matches the color of its neighboring teeth.

The natural teeth on each side of this crown have darkened.

As years elapse, the color of a crown may no longer closely match the shade of its neighboring teeth. In these cases, it's not that the porcelain has changed but instead that the neighboring teeth have stained and darkened.
Repair solutions.
There can be two ways to remedy this situation.
  • One is to replace the offending crown with a new one that more closely matches the current color of the neighboring teeth.
  • Another is to use teeth-whitening treatments (as explained here) in an attempt to return the neighboring teeth back to the color they were when the dental crown was originally placed.

 


Some things to realize.

a) Prevention is always the best approach.

You've just learned that in most cases having a "permanent" crown placed doesn't mean that it's going to last forever. And that means to whatever extent is possible, one of your dental goals should be to avoid winding up in the position where getting one is needed.

Toward achieving this goal, we offer our page: Precautions to take that can help you to prevent needing to get teeth capped.

b) Many crowns fail for preventable reasons.

The statistics above reflect the outcomes that people usually experience with their crowns. But in comparison, we couldn't help but notice the findings of a 50-year study about restoration longevity conducted by Olley.

As the criteria for the study's subjects:

  • All were patients of a single "experienced operator." (Implying a dentist with good clinical judgment and skills.)
  • Who had been followed annually with clinical and x-ray examinations. (Had regular checkups, although just yearly.)
  • And followed strict preventive practices and had excellent oral hygiene. (One would have to assume that effective brushing and flossing on a daily basis would play a big role in achieving this.)

 

Admittedly, with these restrictions and the long time span involved, the study only included the evaluation of a relatively small number of restorations (about 200 crowns).

The study's findings.
The author reported that:
  • The mean survival for metal-ceramic crowns (PFM's) was over 47 years.
  • Gold (posterior tooth) and all-ceramic (anterior tooth) crowns had 100% survival at 50 years.

 

Our comments.

There's essentially nothing reported by this study that surprises us. It simply documents that well designed and crafted crowns, if their tooth is kept plaque-free, can last essentially indefinitely.

We can see how some of the cosmetic issues discussed above might arise. (Adjacent teeth do tend to darken and gum lines do tend to recede with age.) And therefore crown replacement might be warranted if the problem can't otherwise be managed.

But clearly from a structural and service standpoint, this paper documents for us that a dominant limiting factor in crown longevity is the patient's behavior and not the restoration itself.

Section references - Olley

 
 
search

 Page references sources: 

Behr M, et al. The clinical performance of porcelain-fused-to-metal precious alloy single crowns: chipping, recurrent caries, periodontitis, and loss of retention.

De Backer H, et al. Long-term survival of complete crowns, fixed dental prostheses, and cantilever fixed dental prostheses with posts and cores on root canal-treated teeth.

Dhima M, et al. Practice-based clinical evaluation of ceramic single crowns after at least five years.

Fernandes NA, et al. The longevity of restorations - a literature review.

Olley RC, et al. An up to 50-year follow-up of crown and veneer survival in a dental practice.

Ozcan M, et al. Clinical study on the reasons for and location of failures of metal-ceramic restorations and survival of repairs.

Pjetursson BE, et al. Comparison of survival and complication rates of tooth-supported fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) and implant-supported FDPs and single crowns (SCs).

Reitemeier B, et al. A prospective 10-year study of metal ceramic single crowns and fixed dental prosthesis retainers in private practice settings.

Walton TR. The up to 25-year survival and clinical performance of 2,340 high gold-based metal-ceramic single crowns.

All reference sources for topic Dental Crowns.

Comments

Lower crown with a small spot worn through the gold crown

What are my options? I have no pain and the crown is 40+ Year’s old.

* Comment notes.

Gail

From the standpoint of crown strength or appearance, the perforation is probably a non-issue.

What your crown no longer does is predictably provide a seal over the tooth.

In theory, bacteria could leak through the opening and cause decay. And for that reason making a new crown, in theory, offers the best solution.

From a practical standpoint, your dentist may decide that they can adequately monitor the perforation for developing problems without any immediate treatment.

Or they may feel that placing a filling in the opening seals the tooth predictably enough.

Crown on #30 keeps coming off.

Previously root canal tooth with crown. Crown has come off twice! Swallowed the most recent one! I have decided to get it extracted and get an implant.

* Comment notes.

For anyone else reading, it

For anyone else reading, it wouldn't be customary to extract a tooth only because it's crown keeps coming off.

In MG's case, there must be shortcomings associated with the tooth that prevents their dentist from having the option of being able to improve the retention form (shape) of the tooth and making a new crown.

Why replace crown?

40 years ago I broke my front tooth. Recently, the crown and post fell out, because of decay. The decay was repaired and I assume a filling was done on the real tooth under the crown. I've had different dentists suggest implants and bridges. My question is,even tho there is a filling there now, why cant a core building happen to build up the tooth to what it was before and then put back the crown and post, or even a new crown and post?

* Comment notes.

Curtis

We don't follow your description entirely but think your situation is:

1) You had a post & core and crown placed 40 years ago.
2) Recently, related to the development of decay, that restoration work fell out.
3) A dentist removed the decay, and then recemented the original post and core.
4) But after that, that dentist stated to you that they thought extraction of the tooth and replacement of the tooth via a bridge or implant was indicated. Other dentists who have seen your tooth have stated the same thing.

One would have to assume that possibly:

1) The decay involved a substantial aspect of the tooth that lies below the gum line. This page explains why subgingival (below the gum line) issues are a problem. (The page is about broken teeth, but the same challenges would apply with tooth structure lost to decay.)

With a front tooth (and the cosmetics involved), changing the level of the gum line might not give an acceptable result.

If the gum line level was changed, possibly due to the extent of the decay the amount of root length still encased in bone would be too short to provide suitable tooth stability.

2) The dentist may feel that what's now left of the tooth offers big challenges in being able to adequately (securely, predictably) anchor a post and core to it.

---
Whatever decay existed had to lie beyond the edge of the existing crown (decay can't penetrate through a crown). So now that the decay has been removed, it's edges no longer fully lie on sound tooth structure (at least one part would rest on an area of filling).

Structurally that's a weak configuration. And it also means that the existing crown no longer creates a predictable seal over your tooth (the weak link being the fit in the area of the filling).

So even if somehow your tooth is restored with a post & core and crown, all of the components will need to be new ones to do the job right.

Crown replaced.

Had new crown placed on last lower molar that was cracking and had old fillings, but NO pain.
Dentist placed new crown on tooth, which did not need a root canal done. Less than six months later the new crown badly cracked, but there was still NO pain. Dentist removed cracked crown and replaced it with a new one. NOW I am having heat/cold sensitivity and pain while chewing. What possibly could have happened? Removal of the cracked crown hurt a lot, did that traumatize the tooth? Few weeks gone by and it still causes pain. ???

* Comment notes.

Charlene

We're not going to have any specific answers for you but we do have several pages to refer you too. Possibly they can shed light on what you've experienced, either as an answer that you can figure out or in preparation of asking your dentist questions.

Only as a background reminder for other people reading, the outcome of performing dentistry can never be totally predictable. And for that reason any steps taken, like replacing large fillings with crowns, needs to have good justification. In Charlene's case, it seems there was.

It's disheartening to hear that your crown broke. Different types of crowns offer different success rates in regard to this point. Although, after an initial period, crown success can evidently become more predictable with all types.

There could be some simple explanations for the heat/cold sensitivity and chewing pain you notice.

1) A first check would need to be that the "bite" of the crown is precisely correct. (In theory, an error here might explain all of your symptoms.)

2) Thermal sensitivity with a crown might be explained by this phenomenon. (Use the link.)

Clearly your tooth needs to be evaluated by your dentist. No doubt they will first try any and all simple measures they can to resolve your issues, and then if they persist, continue on investigating from there.

In light of the fact that your tooth has an extensive history of potentially traumatizing events (large filling placement, cracks, repeated procedures), aspects of this page about the relationship between dental crowns and a need for root canal work might apply if the simple measures above don't pan out.

Finally, what you report doesn't jive precisely with what's expected if the event that broke the crown further cracked the tooth. But no doubt your dentist will at least consider these issues too when evaluation your tooth.

* Comments marked with an asterisk, along with their associated replies, have either been edited for brevity/clarity, or have been moved to a page that's better aligned with their subject matter, or both. If relocated, the comment and its replies retain their original datestamps, which may affect the chronology of the page's comments section.


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