Reference sources used for topic Tooth Extractions.

Topic created: September 2000
Last revision / evaluation: 08/18/17 authorship information.


Asarch T, et. al. Efficacy of a computerized local anesthesia device in pediatric dentistry. Pediatr Dent. Vol. 21, No 7. 1999

Ahel V, et. Al. Forces that fracture teeth during extraction with mandibularpremolar and maxillary incisor forceps. Br. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 2015

Aminabadi NA, et. al. Site-specificity of pain sensitivity to intraoral anesthetic injections in children. J Oral Sci. Vol. 51, No. 2. June 2009

Balshi, T. A Patient's Guide to Dental Implants. Addicus Books. Copyright 2003.

Bataineh AB, et. al. Patient’s pain perception during mandibular molar extraction with articaine: a comparison study between infiltration and inferior alveolar nerve block. Clin. Oral Invest. January 21, 2016

Brownbill JW, et. al. Comparison of inferior dental nerve block injections in child patients using 30-gauge and 25-gauge short needles. Anesth. Prog. Vol. 34, No. 6. Nov-Dec 1987

Carr MP, et. al. Pain perceived by needle sticks with/without injections using different gauge needles. J Dent Res. Vol. 80. 2001

Cohen N, et. al. Healing processes following tooth extraction in orthodontic cases. J. Dentofacial Anom. Orthod. Vol 17. 2014

Davoudi A, et. al. A brief review on the efficacy of different possible and nonpharmacological techniques in eliminating discomfort of local anesthesia injection during dental procedures. Anesth. Essays Res. Vol 10, No. 1. Jan-Apr 2016

Dowd, F. Review for the NBDE, Part 2. Mosby Elsevier. Copyright 2007.

Elbay US, et. al. Effects of Two Different Anesthetic Solutions on Injection Pain, Efficacy, and Duration of Soft-Tissue Anesthesia with Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block for Primary Molars. J. Clin. Pediatr. Dent. Vol 40, No. 6. 2016

Fagade OO, et. al. Intra-operative pain perception in tooth extraction – possible causes. International Dental Journal. Vol. 55. 2005

Flanagan T, et. al. Size doesn't matter: needle gauge and injection pain. Gen Dent. Vol. 55, No. 3. May-Jun 2007

Friedman, J. The Complete Guide to Dental Health: How to Avoid Being Overcharged and Overtreated. Consumer Reports Books. Copyright 2002.

Friedman MJ, Using AMSA and P-ASA nerve blocks for aesthetic restorative dentistry. Gen Dent. Vol. 49. 2001

Fuller NP, et. al. Perception of pain to three different intraoral penetrations of needles. J Am Dent Assoc. Vol. 99, No. 5. Nov 1979

Grace EG, et. al. Computerized local dental anesthetic systems: patient and dentist satisfaction. J Dent. Vol. 31. 2003

Hamburg HL. Preliminary study of patient reaction to needle gauge. NY State Dent J. Vol. 38, No. 7. Aug-Sep 1972

Hu ML, et. al. Development of an oral and maxillofacial surgery outcomes system for anesthesia and third molar removal: Results of alpha and beta testing. J. Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. Vol. 59, Issue 5. May 2001.

Kammerer PW, et. al. Comparison of 4% articaine with epinephrine (1:100,000) and without epinephrine in inferior alveolar block for tooth extraction: double-blind randomized clinical trial of anesthetic efficacy. Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol. Vol. 113. 2012

Kanaa MD, et. al. A Prospective Randomized Trial of Different Supplementary Local Anesthetic Techniques after Failure of Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block in Patients with Irreversible Pulpitis in Mandibular Teeth. J. Endodontics. Vol. 38. 2012

Kaufman E, et. al. A Survey of Pain, Pressure, and Discomfort Induced by Commonly Used Oral Local Anesthesia Injections. Anesth Prog. Vol. 52, No. 4. Winter 2005

Kudo, M. Initial Injection Pressure for Dental Local Anesthesia: Effects on Pain and Anxiety. Anesth Prog. Vol. 52, No. 3. Fall 2005

Lake, M. How to Save Your Smile and Your Wallet: Dentistry: Myths and Realities, A Patient's Guide. BookSurge Publishing. Copyright 2006.

Liu FC, et. al. Effect of Warm Lidocaine on the Sensory Onset of Epidural Anesthesia: A Randomized Trial. Chang Gung Med. J. Vol. 32, No. 6. Nov-Dec 2009

Lopes V, et al. Third molar surgery: an audit of the indications for surgery, post-operative
complaints and patient satisfaction. British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. Vol. 33. 1995

Malamed SF, et al. Needle breakage: incidence and prevention. Dent. Clin. N. Am. Vol. 54. 2010

Managutti A, et. al. Comparative Analysis of Local Anesthesia with 2 Different Concentrations of Adrenaline: A Randomized and Single Blind Study. J. Int. Oral Health. Vol 7, No. 3. March 2015.

Martin MD, et. al. Topical anesthesia: differentiating the pharmacological and psychological contributions to efficacy. Anesth Prog. Vol. 41, No. 2 1994

Meechan JG, et. al. Factors influencing the discomfort of intraoral needle penetration. Anesth Prog. Vol. 52. 2005

Meechan JG, et. al. The use of patient controlled transcutaneous electronic nerve stimulation (TENS) to decrease the discomfort of regional anesthesia in dentistry: a randomized controlled clinical trial. J Dent. Vol. 26. 1998

Meredith, Michael. Herbal Nutriceuticals: A Primer for Dentists and Dental Hygienists. The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice. Spring 2001. Volume 2, Number 2.

Nagasawa I, et. al. Relationship between the injection rate of infiltration anesthesia and the painful sensation. J Jpn Dent Soc Anesthesiol. Vol 31. 2003

Nakanishi O, et. al. Efficacy of mandibular topical anesthesia varies with the site of administration. Anesth Prog. Vol. 43. 1996

Nusstein J, et. al. Injection pain and postinjection pain of the anterior middle superior alveolar injection administered with the Wand or conventional syringe. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. Vol. 98, No. 1. July 2004

Nusstein J, et al. Local Anesthesia Strategies for the Patient With a "Hot" Tooth. Dental Clinics N. America. Vol. 54. 2010

Nusstein J, et. al. Effectiveness of 20% benzocaine as a topical anesthetic for intraoral injections. Anesth Prog. Vol. 50. 2003

Okawa K, et. al. Anxiety may ennhance apin during dental treatment. Bull. Tokyo Dent. Coll. Vol. 46, No. 3. 2005

Pashley EL, et. al. Pressures created by dental injections. J Dent Res. Vol. 60, No. 10. Oct 1981

Primosch RE, et. al. Influence of anesthetic flow rate delivered by the Wand Local Anesthetic System on pain response to palatal injections. Am J Dent. Vol. 15. 2002

Ram D, et. al. The assessment of pain sensation during local anesthesia using a computerized local anesthesia (Wand) and a conventional syringe. J Dent Child (Chic). Vol 70, No. 2. May-Aug 2003

Rousseau WH, et. al. A Comparison of Pain Levels During Pulpectomy, Extractions, and Restorative Procedures. J. Endodontics. Vol. 28, No. 2. February 2002.

Rout PG, et. al. An investigation of the effect on 27 gauge needle tips following a single local anaesthetic injection. Dent Update. Vol. 30. 2003

Schwartz S. Local Anesthesia in Pediatric Dentistry. Continuing Education Course. Last revised March 26, 2015.

Shah M, et. al. A clinical comparison of pain perception and extent of area anesthetized by Wand® and a traditional syringe. J Indian Soc Periodontol. Vol 16, No. 2. Apr-Jun 2012

Sonis, S. Dental Secrets, 3rd Edition. Hanley & Belfus, Inc. Copyright 2003.

Tickle M, et. al. Predictors of pain associated with routine procedures performed in general dental practice. Community Dent. Oral Epidemiol. Vol. 40, No. 4. August 2012

van Wijk AJ, et. al. Anxiety and pain during dental injections. J Dent. Vol. 37, No. 9. Sept 2009

van Wijk AJ, et. al. Pain related to mandibular block injections and its relationship with anxiety and previous experiences with dental anesthetics. Oral and Max. Surgery. Vol. 114, No. 5S. Nov 2012

Wong JK. Adjuncts to Local Anesthesia: Separating fact from fiction. J. Canadian Dent. Assoc. Vol. 67, Issue 7. 2001

Wynn RL, et. al. Drug Information Handbook for Dentistry. 9th edition. Lexi-Comp. Copyright 2003.

Zain M, et. al. Comparison of Anaesthetic Efficacy of 4% Articaine Primary Buccal Infiltration Versus 2% Lidocaine Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block in Symptomatic Mandibular First Molar Teeth. J. Coll. Physicians Surg. Pak. Vol. 26, No. 1. January 2016


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